Loss of Mastering does not prevent jogging the robot in Joint mode, although it does prevent jogging in any Linear mode (World, Base, etc).
Your screenshot shows you are also missing General Motion Enable. That is probably what is preventing the robot from jogging.
Also, WorkSpace Monitoring depends on having valid Mastering. It's possible that, if you have a Workspace configured to stop the robot, you may have to override the WorkSpace Monitoring temporarily (there's a menu function for it, you don't have to edit the WSs) in order to jog to Mastering position.
It's also possible that, whatever external device is providing your General Motion Enable, it may be looking for the WS signals, if you've set the system up that way. In a pinch, you might simply change $MOVE_ENABLE to 1025 (in the Automatic External I/O configuration) temporarily in order to jog. Make sure to change it back to the correct input before going back into production, though.