You can use the program adjust utility to change all speeds if you want your new speed across the board.
Are you sure that the 1800 number is RPM? I have a robot that was integrated by the same integrator as yours and their "spindle on" program set a 0-20mA output. I.e, 0 = 0 and 2000 = max rpm. I made a program to convert RPM to AO signal to enhance readability - check your "AA_ON" program to see if it's doing an RPM to 0-20mA conversion or just setting the analog output to AR.
The spindle has an internal thermistor that needs to be wired to a relay in your cabinet. That relay is in turn connected to one of the robot's DIs, and the custom software you're running checks for the DI to be on before it will let you run the robot. Most likely when the spindle got swapped, the thermistor didn't get wired back in correctly. I recommend contacting your integrator (https://shapeprocessautomation.com/ - SPA, formerly known as DRS, KMT, or RPT) and asking for a wiring diagram for your system. If you are in an absolute bind you can find which DI is the thermistor relay signal, it should be labled "Thermistor Fault." You can simulate it ON and run that way until you get it wired back in correctly, but doing so will remove the spindle's thermal protection.
I just wrote a program that does this almost this exact thing the other dayCode
W_TAB is my weld program, it lays a bead from PR to PR with a PR Offset applied.
Not exactly. You have to send the binary representation of the decimal PNS number you're trying to call.
So, if you need to select PNS0001, set UI,
for PNS0002 => set UI
for PNS0003 => set UI AND UI
for PNS0004 => set UI
for PNS0005 => set UI AND UI 
Set the start type to PNS
Name your programs PNS0001, PNS0002, etc
Have the PLC set the UI[9-16] bit to select the PNS number you want
Pulse PNS strobe [UI17]
Pulse production start UI
Your menu files are saved on the robot as "MENUxyy.VR," where X is the menu type and yy is the menu number - I don't have a robot in front of me right now but IIRC menu type 1 is a mesage, 2 is yes/no, 3 is pick from a list, etc. It's the same order that they're listed in the menu utility menus. So if you want to copy your 3nd yes/no menu, you would copy "MENU203.VR" from the roboguide cell to the real robot. Obviously you need to have menu utility installed on the real robot for this to work.
The I/O link cable runs from JD1A on the robot controller to JD1B on the interface module
I had shorted EES1 to EES11, and EES2 to EES21 in the big cabinet as per Hawks post to get the robot to jog.
I've added pictures of the controller boards to the google photos album.
Those terminals are for the External E-Stop. The fence circuit is right next to the EES connectors, jumper EAS1 to EAS11 and EAS2 to EAS21. Obviously due to safety reasons this isn't how you should run the robot; but should make the fence open error go away for testing purposes.
I'm integrating my first weld cell right now; using an ArcMate 120iB with a Powerwave 455M to weld frames out of 1"x1" 16ga box tubing. There are eight butt welds and twelve fillet welds per weldament, all welds are vertical. The steel tube I'm welding is primed and oiled. I have very limited experience welding and no previous experience with robotic welding.
I have two problems, one is excessive spatter and the other is blow through; I'm probably blowing out ~5% of my fillet welds and ~10% of my butts. I'm hoping that one of yall with more experience could take a quick look at my setup and let me know if you see anything obvious that I could change to help with the problems. I've attached a few photos of blown out welds, and one of the spatter build up on the jig after about 10-15 welds.
The process is GMAW-P, .045 wire, 75/25 AR/CO2 @ 25cfh
Wire feed 160ipm fillet, 140ipm butt
Trim .7 fillet, .5 butt
Travel speed 12ipm both
Circle weave on both, 3 hz / 3mm
I'm establishing an arc with no movement for .12s, then starting the weave for .38s, then starting the travel. The torch is oriented 20° down from horizontal, welding from top to bottom. The majority of the welds look great; but like I said some blow through and there's way more spatter than when we hand weld using a MIG welder.
Post the program
N - J5 <0
F - J5 >0
U - J3 < 90
D - J3 > 90
T/B - More complicated than n/f and u/d
I recommend finding a class and taking it, reading the manuals, or at a minimum familiarizing yourself with the training materials in this thread: A Free Open-Source E-Book for HandlingTool TeachPendant Programming
That said, to create a program in RG, bring up the virtual pendant by hitting the show/hide pendant button on the toolbar. On the pendant, hit "select," then the softkey "CREATE." Name your program and hit the "EDIT" softkey. To call sub-programs, hit "next," then the "[INST]" softkey, "CALL," "CALL PROGRAM." Choose the sub you want to call.
I would make one "main" program that calls your individual programs, handles air moves between segments, and takes care of all of your logic. That way when you have to touch up or adjust one segment, you aren't messing with everything else at the same time.
Parts are what the robot works on. They're used for cad-to-path, etc. Fixtures hold parts. As you move fixtures, any parts attached to that fixture also move. All parts in the cell are stored on what's called the Part Rack. This is what you're showing in your screenshots. If you right click on Parts, click part rack properties, and uncheck "visible" the part rack and parts stored on it will go away. Parts have to be on a fixture in order to be useful. If you place your iges file as an obstacle, you can move it around using the triad or direct inputting the XYZWPR values from it's properties menu.
You're right, I misread the question.
Set the variable $DMAURST to TRUE
Menu > Setup > Frames. If tool frames is not active, hit Prev, then [Other] and select "tool." Select the tool frame you want to change, hit "detail," then "[Method]," select "direct entry," and change the appropriate WPR rotation to get the right orientation.