In its simplicity, how can a robot’s handling capacity or maximum payload be determined? For example, the ISO 9283 standard focuses only on the definition of accuracy and repeatability, and there is no information on testing or defining a payload. Scientific articles mainly focus on determining the maximum payload in a given trajectory. What if the trajectory is unknown? Clearly related to the definition of the payload, the torque constraints of the actuators and other considerations are the dynamic and kinematic modeling of the manipulator. And stability in wheeled manipulators. I would be grateful if you could provide information and proper sources for defining and testing your maximum payload. I am not yet an expert in the field.